There is quite a lot of information about acids used in cosmetics. But have you noticed that it's incredibly easy to get lost among the various acid shortcuts and quite difficult to remember the properties of each one for your skin? So, let's discuss the acids most commonly found in cosmetic products: AHA, BHA and PHA.
AHA acids (alpha hydroxy acids)
These are water-soluble acids, the most popular of which are lactic and glycolic acids. They are most active on the surface of the skin and are perfect for fine lines, sun damage (hyperpigmentation) and uneven skin texture. These acids come from natural materials such as sugar cane or milk, but can also be produced by chemical synthesis in a laboratory!
BHA r acids (beta hydroxy acids)
These are fat-soluble acids, among which salicylic acid is the most commonly used in cosmetics. It penetrates deep into the pores, dissolves sebum and dead skin cells, making it an ideal choice for oily and acne-prone skin. BHA acids not only clean pores, but also have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Salicylic acid can be obtained both from plants and synthetically, and the latter is the most used in the cosmetic industry.
PHA acids (polyhydroxy acids)
These are particularly large molecules such as gluconolactone and lactobionic acid. PHA acids are the new stars in the world of cosmetics. They are very similar to AHAs but have a larger molecular size, which means they penetrate the skin more slowly and are less irritating. PHA acids are a great choice for even the most sensitive skin! Unlike AHAs or BHAs, these acids can only be obtained in a laboratory by chemically modifying sugar molecules. PHA production in the cosmetic industry is heavily controlled and standardized to ensure the quality and safety of these ingredients in skin care products.