Aging symptoms can be effectively treated with retinol and its derivatives, particularly vitamin A. Retinol can enter the dermis by penetrating the skin's outer layer as a fat-soluble substance. Converting into retinoic acid via retinaldehyde as the first step, retinol enters the skin cell through a two-step process. Retinoids play an essential role in stimulating skin cells to regenerate and exfoliate, while also reducing fine lines, pigmentation, and acne scars. Moreover, they possess an anti-comedogenic impact that aids skin purging.
So, which retinoids are most widely used in cosmetics and what effects do they have?
Among the various retinoids, tretinoin (also known as retinoic acid) is the most potent in terms of biological activity. It accelerates the process of skin cell turnover and helps to reduce skin pigmentation.
Retinol, a frequently used type of retinoid in cosmetics, is appreciated for its gentleness and effectiveness, although it is less potent than retinoic acid which is twenty times stronger. The addressed concerns by this product are skin pigmentation, dryness, and fine lines.
Obtained from vitamin A, retinal is an aldehyde that forms from the oxidation of retinol. It has limited effectiveness in treating various skin problems. Retinal, being a stable derivative of vitamin A similar to retinyl acetate and palmitate, can only slightly improve skin texture. Nonetheless, it is less bothersome and more easily tolerated than retinoic acid.
So, retinol and its derivatives can penetrate the outer layer of the skin extensively and execute specific functions within the cell. The efficiency of cosmetic products with retinoids depends on the type of retinoid and the targeted skin issue. Selecting a cosmetic product requires considering both retinoid type and concentration.